Learn How to Spot and Prevent Liver Cirrhosis

Dr. Prajwalit Bhanu

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Prajwalit Bhanu

General Physician

6 min read

Key Takeaways

  • there are few to no symptoms that directly indicate Liver Cirrhosis.
  • Avoid fried or overly fatty foods as they exert strain on your liver.
  • Mismanagement can draw down serious complications like liver failure, kidney failure, and even cancer.

The liver is an internal organ that is responsible for ridding the body of toxins and helping indigestion. Like any other organ, the liver is also susceptible to damage, which is normally brought on by an improper diet, viruses, obesity, or alcohol abuse. Such damage caused over time can have detrimental effects, including Liver cirrhosis. Meaning that sustained damage to the liver causes it to scar, shrink and harden, ultimately leading to impaired function.

Additionally, the liver cirrhosis is an internal condition and there are few to no symptoms that directly indicate any such problem. This begs the question: What are the first signs of cirrhosis of the liver? In most cases, you’re likely to experience symptoms that can be easily mistaken for other illnesses or medical conditions. These include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Yellowing of skin
  • Itching
  • Easy bruising
  • Loss of appetite

While it is likely that these may be signs of other underlying health problems, when any of these persist, you should consult a doctor at the earliest. Medical attention along with the right information about a cirrhotic liver gives you the best chance at getting the right diagnosis and recovering quickly.

To arm you with all the information you’d need, here is a detailed breakdown of this condition, right from the causes and treatment to the stages of progression and common symptoms of liver cirrhosis.

Liver Cirrhosis Causes

With cirrhosis, liver damage has been happening over a sustained period of time and there are numerous factors that are responsible for this. Here are some of the common causes of liver cirrhosis.

  • Chronic alcohol abuse
  • Hepatitis C
  • Obesity
  • Hepatitis B
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Hepatitis D
  • Wilson’s disease
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Over-the-counter medication
  • Biliary atresia
  • Genetic digestive disorders
  • Syphilis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis

While many of the causes are due to medical conditions, chronic alcohol abuse is one that isn’t and should be given special attention. In fact, research has found that regular drinking over the course of several years causes liver cirrhosis.

Liver Cirrhosis Stages

There are 4 main stages of liver cirrhosis, which in itself is late-stage liver damage. Meaning, once scarring starts to affect liver function, it will gradually worsen if not handled appropriately. Here is a brief explanation of the 4 liver cirrhosis stages.

Stage 1

Also considered as compensated cirrhosis, the liver has minimal scarring and the afflicted may experience a few symptoms if any.

Stage 2

A symptom of this stage is portal hypertension, which is when scarring slows down blood flow in the liver, thus exerting greater pressure on the vein carrying blood from the spleen and intestines. As a result, varies may also develop in this area.

Stage 3

This is when there is advanced liver scarring and swelling in the abdomen. Also considered as de-compensated cirrhosis, at this stage, cirrhosis is not reversible, there are very serious health complications, and the cirrhosis symptoms experienced by the afflicted are obvious. In some cases, it is also possible to experience complete liver failure.

Stage 4

This is known as end-stage liver disease (ESLD), which is life-threatening and requires a liver transplant as a treatment. Without a transplant, this condition can be fatal for the afflicted.

Liver Cirrhosis Symptoms

While it is important to know what to look out for, it also helps to know why these symptoms occur. With liver cirrhosis, the liver loses its ability to purify the blood from toxins, absorb fats, and produce clotting proteins.

As a result, these are the several symptoms and health complications that arise. They are:

  • Nose bleeds
  • Jaundice
  • Anorexia
  • Weakness
  • Decreased appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Gynecomastia
  • Impotence
  • Ascites
  • Edema
  • Muscle cramps
  • Bone disease
  • Discolored urine (brown)
  • Fever
  • Red palms
  • Spiderlike blood vessels
  • Irregular menstruation

Some of the symptoms, like ascites, can also lead to other health complications. In the case of ascites, those with cirrhosis may have a tougher time fighting off infection, which makes the body susceptible to bacterial peritonitis. This is a very serious infection that must be diagnosed early for recovery. Failing to do so, puts the afflicted in a high-risk category and can prove to be terminal.

Liver Cirrhosis Treatment

Besides advising weight loss and a complete cut-off from alcohol, doctors may also prescribe specific medication to control liver cirrhosis and its symptoms. Here is what you can expect in terms of treatment.

  • Beta-blockers: For portal hypertension
  • Haemodialysis: To aid blood purification for those with kidney failure
  • Lactulose and minimal protein from the diet: To treat encephalopathy
  • Intravenous antibiotics: For those that develop bacterial peritonitis arising from ascites
  • Banding: To keep bleeding in check that may arise due to oesophageal varices
  • Liver transplant: For those that have ESLD and as a last resort for treatment
  • Anti-viral medication: For those with hepatitis
  • Medication: For those with Wilson’s disease, specialized medication may be prescribed to increase the amount of copper being excreted as waste and thus lower the amount in the body

Liver Cirrhosis Prevention

Preventing liver cirrhosis involves mainly doing all you can to steer clear of the common causes. These are the best approaches you can employ.

Avoid or Minimize Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol has been found to cause liver damage and limiting exposure to it will help keep your liver in good shape. This is especially important if consuming alcohol is a regular part of your routine as research has found chronic alcohol abuse to be a leading cause.

Protect yourself against Hepatitis

Vaccinate yourself against hepatitis B and be on guard against coming in contact with infected blood to reduce the chances of contracting hepatitis B and C.

Maintain Healthy Body Weight

Obesity also causes liver damage and opting to stay fit will do wonders to protect you against such conditions. Exercise and healthy eating is a good way to achieve this goal safely and with lasting results.

Eat Healthy

Avoid fried or overly fatty foods as they exert strain on your liver. Ideally, incorporate a healthy mix of vegetables and consider a plant-based diet.

Dealing with liver cirrhosis is something that shouldn’t be taken lightly and most definitely requires constant medical care. This is mainly due to the fact that mismanagement can draw down serious complications like liver failure, kidney failure, and even cancer. All of these are life-threatening conditions and can be avoided when cirrhosis treatment is administered properly and in time. Thankfully, with the healthcare platform provided by Bajaj Finserv Health, availing of healthcare is easier than ever as it grants access to numerous provisions.

With it, you can find the best specialist in your vicinity and also book appointments online, thereby skipping the need to stand in any queues. To add to that, you can also consult with your doctor virtually over video for greater convenience. The platform also allows you to maintain digital patient records and forward them digitally to healthcare specialists of your choosing. This makes remote healthcare that much more efficient and easy to avail, especially if a physical visit isn’t possible. Get started now!

Published on 20 Nov 2020Last updated on 18 Nov 2022
  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver-problems/symptoms-causes/syc-20374502
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cirrhosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351487#:~:text=Cirrhosis%20is%20a%20late%20stage,it%20tries%20to%20repair%20itself.
  3. https://www.griswoldhomecare.com/blog/living-with-cirrhosis-of-the-liver-life-expectancy-risk-factors-diet/
  4. https://www.griswoldhomecare.com/blog/living-with-cirrhosis-of-the-liver-life-expectancy-risk-factors-diet/
  5. https://www.healthline.com/health/cirrhosis#symptoms
  6. https://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm
  7. https://www.healthline.com/health/cirrhosis#causes
  8. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cirrhosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351487#:~:text=Cirrhosis%20is%20a%20late%20stage,it%20tries%20to%20repair%20itself.
  9. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cirrhosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351487#:~:text=Cirrhosis%20is%20a%20late%20stage,it%20tries%20to%20repair%20itself.
  10. https://www.healthline.com/health/cirrhosis#prevention

Please note that this article is solely meant for informational purposes and Bajaj Finserv Health Limited (“BFHL”) does not shoulder any responsibility of the views/advice/information expressed/given by the writer/reviewer/originator. This article should not be considered as a substitute for any medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with your trusted physician/qualified healthcare professional to evaluate your medical condition. The above article has been reviewed by a qualified doctor and BFHL is not responsible for any damages for any information or services provided by any third party.

Dr. Prajwalit Bhanu

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Prajwalit Bhanu

, MBBS 1 , Diploma in Medical Cosmetology and Aesthetic Medicine 2

Dr. Prajwalit Bhanu is General Physician in Bhagalpur. He is practicing from last 6 Years. He has done his MBBS from Bharti Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College And Hospital, Sangli and Diploma in Medical Cosmetology and Aesthetic Medicine from Shobhit Deemed University, Meerut


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