Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Causes ,Treatment and Risk Factor

Bajaj Finserv Health
May 23rd, 2022
6 mins read

Key Takeaways

  • Prostate cancer is the 2nd most frequent malignant cancer among men
  • Some types of prostate cancer are harmless and may not need treatment
  • Prostate cancer causes include risk factors like old age and gene mutation

When it comes to the most frequent malignant cancers among men worldwide, prostate cancer, meaning abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland, holds the second position, just after lung cancer [1]. The prostate gland in men is located just below the bladder. Note that while some types of prostate cancers are harmless and require no or minimal treatment, a few types are malignant in nature and may require aggressive treatment.

To know important facts regarding prostate cancer causes, types, and treatment methods, read on.

Prostate cancer risk factors 

Every type of cancer has its own set of risk factors. Multiple studies to find potential causes have found the following as the risk factors. 


As per data, It is more common among Caribbean men of American origin and African-American men. It is a rarer occurrence among men of Hispanic, Latino, or Asian American origin. However, the exact reasons for this remain unclear. 

Prostate Cancer

Family background 

In some families, there are instances of cancer among men across generations. However, in most cases of prostate cancer, family history has no role to play. 

Gene mutation 

In rare cases, prostate cancer causes are linked to inherited changes in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Inherited gene mutations also lead to Lynch syndrome, which can be another cause of prostate cancer. 

Old age 

This cancer is less common among men aged below 40. However, once they reach 50 years, the probability of having this cancer increases significantly. On average, 6 out of 10 cases of prostate cancer cases are linked to men aged over 65. 

types of prostate cancer


Major cases are found on the Caribbean islands and in the north-western parts of Australia and Europe, and North America. In continents like Asia, Central and South America, and Africa, there is a lesser number of instances. However, the exact reasons behind this dissimilarity are not clear.

Apart from these, there are a few minor risk factors for prostate cancer whose exact effects remain unclear. Here’s a look at them: 

  • Exposure to chemicals 
  • Dairy and calcium diet 
  • Obesity 
  • Vasectomy 
  • Tobacco addiction 
  • STIs 
  • Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis)

Additional Read: Type of Uterine Cancer

Common symptoms of prostate cancer 

Its primary stages may not show any signs and symptoms. Once it reaches an advanced stage, you may experience the following: 

  • Chronic pain in bones 
  • Rapid weight loss 
  • Difficulty urinating 
  • Lack of trust in the flow of urine 
  • Presence of blood in semen and urine 
  • Frequent night-time urination or nocturia 
  • Erectile dysfunction

Common symptoms of prostate cancer 

How do doctors diagnose prostate cancer? 

Oncologists diagnose prostate cancer in two steps. At first, they perform the following screening tests to understand whether the results indicate significant signs of this cancer: 

  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test 
  • Digital rectal exam (DRE) 

In case doctors detect an abnormality in these tests, they may further perform the following tests: 

  • MRI 
  • Ultrasound 
  • Prostate biopsy

Additional Read: World Cancer Day

What are the usual prostate cancer treatment methods? 

Once it is diagnosed, doctors decide on the treatment to be followed based on the degree of malignancy. Here are the usual ways to treat: 

  • Active surveillance in low-risk cases 
  • Heating of freezing affected prostate tissue 
  • Radiotherapy for cancer 
  • Prostate removal surgery 
  • Therapy with targeted drug 
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Hormone therapy 
  • Immunotherapy 

Though 100% cure is not possible in the case of any cancer, you can successfully manage the symptoms if it is diagnosed at a primary stage.

Note that it is not possible to prevent, but you can take some precautionary measures to lower the risks. Limit your calcium and dairy intake, watch out for obesity, and remain physically agile to reduce the chances of prostate cancer. To know facts regarding other types of cancer, you can observe World Cancer Day on February 4 every year and get all the information you want through the various events held. If you are experiencing any signs related to this or have any other health concerns, get a doctor consultation on Bajaj Finserv Health and clarify all your doubts remotely. Talk with the top specialists in your locality and follow their advice to lead a life stress-free!

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