DIABETES
May 25th, 2021
3 mins read

A Quick Guide to Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes

Type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes affect your body in different ways

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were formerly known as IDDM and NIDDM

Medical management of diabetes involves medicine and lifestyle change

Diabetes is a lifestyle disease, largely considered to be a product of a sedentary, fast-paced life that puts physical activity and good nutrition on the backburner. When it isn’t treated, it can culminate in strokes, vision problems, heart disease, kidney failure, nerve damage, depression and even hearing impairment. However, by educating yourself, you can manage it better and prevent it from hampering your life.  

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Those whose bodies don’t produce insulin are said to have type 1 diabetes, also known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or IDDM. If you suffer from type 1 diabetes, it is because your immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in your pancreas.  

Type 2 diabetes

The simplest way to explain diabetes mellitus is as follows: It is a state wherein your body is either not producing sufficient insulin or isn’t able to optimally use the insulin that is being produced. It is also known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or NIDDM. While type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus have similar symptoms, type 1 diabetes usually typically affects children, and type 2 diabetes affects those over the ages of 35–40 years. 

Gestational diabetes

Unlike IDDM and NIDDM, gestational diabetes is specific to pregnancy, when a woman’s body develops a degree of insulin resistance. If this level is high enough, it is called gestational diabetes. This is harmful to the mother, but more so to the baby. The infant may have low blood sugar, high birth weight and trouble breathing. In fact, the baby will also be at a higher risk of suffering from diabetes later on in life. 

What is gestational diabetes

Diabetes management 

The medical management of diabetes mellitus (type 1) involves the patient taking insulin via injections or an insulin pump. Type 2 diabetes is typically treated via medication, exercise and diet control. Gestational diabetes is categorised as A1 or A2 depending on its severity and treated accordingly. Class A1 cases can be controlled through diet and exercise alone, whereas Class A2 cases require medication as well. 

Consulting with a specialist at periodic intervals is imperative when you have gestational diabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well. This helps you manage the condition and prevent it from triggering other illnesses. 

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