Immunity is the ability of the body to prevent the entry of a pathogen
Innate, adaptive and passive are the three types of immunity
White blood cells play a key role in the immune system working process
The immune system is vital for our survival. Without it, the body is susceptible to disease-causing microorganisms. It is solely because of our immunity that we can fight and prevent foreign bodies from attacking us. A foreign substance could be any pathogen, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or even parasites.
A complex network of cells and proteins, the immune system keeps track of different pathogens entering the body. When the same organism reenters, it can recognize and destroy them. Read on to know what immunity is and learn more about the immune system working process.
The ability of your body to resist an invasion by pathogens is called immunity. These pathogens contain antigens on their surface. They elicit an immune response upon entering the body. This immune response is the body’s defense mechanism to fight against these pathogens.
Additional Read: Important Symptoms of Weak Immunity and How to Improve It
An immune system comprises the following components.
Phagocytes function by absorbing and eating the pathogen. There are different types of phagocytes that include the following.
Lymphocytes are the cells that help the body to recognize if the pathogen has previously invaded it or not. Produced in the bone marrow, they are classified as B-cells and T-cells. Lymphocytes staying in the bone marrow are B-cells and the ones migrating to the thymus are T-cells. B-cells produce antibodies while sending alert signals to T-cells. T-cells function by destroying the affected cells and alerting other leukocytes. 
Innate immunity is the body’s first line of defense. It is the protection present in your body right from birth. It includes barriers such as mucous membranes and skin. Often referred to as non-specific immunity, these barriers prevent the entry of pathogens into the body.
Adaptive immunity or active immunity happens when your body is exposed to a disease-causing organism. Consequently, the body produces antibodies. The next time the same pathogen invades, the body fights it off with those antibodies. Apart from this, vaccination can also result in developing adaptive immunity.
Passive immunity happens when you have antibodies already present in the immune system. A newborn baby acquires passive immunity from the mother via the placenta. The most crucial factor to consider when differentiating between active and passive immunity is that the former is permanent and long-lasting. Passive immunity is temporary. 
As it is clear, the body can clearly distinguish self from non-self. The immune system strives hard to get rid of pathogens that have invaded the body. Upon recognition, B-cells are triggered to produce antibodies that can lock specific antigens. These antibodies cannot kill antigens without the help of T-cells. T-cells identify antibody-locked antigens and send out an alert signal to other leukocytes like phagocytes, killing these cells. How immunity works in your body is solely dependent on the immune response sparked by the antigen. 
The first and foremost way to improve immunity is to follow an active and healthy lifestyle by incorporating the following essential tips.
Now that you know what immunity is, you can understand the mechanism and workings of the immune system are complex processes. Anything gone wrong can lead to serious disorders. These include hypersensitivity if the immune system overreacts, immunodeficiencies when it underreacts, and autoimmune disorders when it fails to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies. If you face symptoms related to any of the above, book an in-person or online doctor consultation on Bajaj Finserv Health. Connect with specialists near you within minutes and ensure you give your health the attention it deserves.