Systemic Hypertension: Complications, Symptoms, Side Effects

Dr. Jay Mehta

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Jay Mehta

General Physician

8 min read


High blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood from your heart to your body's tissues is known as systemic hypertension. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with hypertension or high blood pressure. 

Maintaining your annual checkups is one way to monitor changes in your blood pressure. However, if you have other conditions, such as high cholesterol or diabetes, you should also check your blood pressure since you are unlikely to notice systemic hypertension symptoms. Read along to find out more about systemic hypertension, and it is dealt with. 

Key Takeaways

  • High blood pressure or hypertension is also known as systemic hypertension
  • Symptoms of systemic hypertension are uncommon
  • Systemic hypertension can be caused due to underlying health conditions and environmental or lifestyle factors

High blood pressure is also known as systemic Hypertension or arterial Hypertension. Systemic Hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure in the systemic arteries is frequently elevated. Arteries are the blood vessels that transport blood from the heart to the tissues of all body parts except the lungs. High blood pressure is caused by the constriction of smaller arteries, which introduces resistance to blood flow in the artery, increasing the load on the heart and causing the pressure inside the arteries to rise. 

Symptoms of Systemic Hypertension

Symptoms of systemic Hypertension are uncommon. This is why the condition is sometimes referred to as the silent killer. Having your blood pressure checked is the only way to determine if you have Hypertension

If Hypertension reaches the level of a hypertensive emergency — 180 mm Hg or higher systolic pressure or 120 mm Hg diastolic pressure — the following systemic hypertension symptoms may be present: 

  • Chest Pain 
  • Confusion 
  • Nausea 
  • Severe Headache 
  • Shortness of Breath 
  • Changes in Vision 

Some people have high blood pressure only when they go to the doctor and not at other times. White coat syndrome or white coat hypertension is the medical term for this. 

Additional Read: A guide to types of HypertensionSystemic Hypertension causes

Causes of Systemic Hypertension

There are numerous potential causes of systemic Hypertension, including underlying health conditions and environmental or lifestyle factors. Diabetes, kidney disease, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and thyroid disease are all conditions that may increase the risk of developing systemic Hypertension. 

Secondary Hypertension occurs when an underlying medical condition causes an increase in blood pressure. Pregnancy can also cause high blood pressure, but this usually goes away once the baby is born. 

The following are some of the more common lifestyle and environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing systemic Hypertension: 

  • A high sodium diets 
  • Drug and Alcohol use 
  • Lack of physical activity 
  • Smoking 
  • Insufficient rest 
Additional Read: High Blood Pressure Treatment At Home

Complications of Systemic Hypertension

Because Hypertension affects the health and function of your arteries, your organs and tissues are at risk of complications if your blood pressure is not well controlled. 

Hypertension cause can arteries to stiffen, weaken, and be less effective at handling blood flow. Hypertension can cause a variety of health problems, including:  

  • Aneurysms 
  • Dementia 
  • Heart Attacks 
  • Heart Failure 
  • Kidney Problems 
  • Stroke 

Some complications seen in Hypertension are: 

Systemic Hypertension ICD 10 

In systemic hypertension ICD 10, a relation between Hypertension and heart disease or Hypertension and kidney failure is presumed. 

Portal Hypertension 

Portal hypertension is characterized by increased pressure within the portal vein, which transports blood from the digestive organs to the liver. Cirrhosis of the liver is the most common cause, but thrombosis (clotting) could also be the culprit.  

Resistant Hypertension 

High blood pressure that does not respond well to aggressive medical treatment is referred to as resistant Hypertension, which increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure significantly. 

Isolated Systolic Hypertension 

Isolated systolic Hypertension occurs when systolic blood pressure rises while diastolic blood pressure remains within an acceptable range. High systolic blood pressure can increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease over time.Systemic Hypertension

Treatment of Systemic Hypertension

Regular home blood pressure monitoring is recommended for these people, as well as for the elderly. 

After measuring a person's blood pressure levels, systemic hypertension treatment is provided. Risen blood pressure has no symptoms and may not even be noticed until some problems arise. It makes no difference whether the Systolic or Diastolic pressure is high; both can cause strokes and cardiac arrest. High blood pressure can also lead to arterial disease over time. Some people may associate it with an unhealthy lifestyle combined with stress. It could also be due to a family history of systemic Hypertension. 

Additional Read: Pomegranate Juice Benefits

How is Systemic Hypertension Treated? 

A hypertension diagnosis may result in a treatment plan that includes lifestyle changes and medications. If you are diagnosed with Hypertension, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes that have: 

  • A heart-healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet, or a whole-food plant-based diet. 
  • Limiting or eliminating foods high in salt (sodium). 
  • Getting at least 30 minutes of exercise 5 or more days per week. 
  • Losing weight if you're considered overweight 
  • Quitting smoking if you smoke 
  • Limiting alcohol consumption if you drink alcohol 

If lifestyle changes are insufficient to lower your blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe medication. Most antihypertensive drugs are both safe and effective at reducing blood pressure. 

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors 
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers 
  • Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers 
  • Thiazide diuretics are the primary first-line medications for systemic Hypertension. 

Treatment decisions for high blood pressure should also take into account a person's cardiovascular risk profile as well as personal preferences. 

For example, aggressive medication treatment may result in some undesirable side effects. If this is the case, you might prefer medications with fewer side effects, or you might like to focus more on exercise or other lifestyle changes.

Side Effects of Systemic Hypertension Medication

  1. ACE (Angiotensin-converting) enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and beta blockers are among the medications used to treat high blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are a class of drugs that reduce the enzyme's activity, converting angiotensin I in the blood to angiotensin II. Dizziness, diarrhea, blood pressure reduction, headaches, and drowsiness are common ACE inhibitor side effects. 
  2. Calcium channel blockers prevent the mineral calcium from entering the muscles, arteries, and heart. Sexual and liver dysfunction, nausea, dizziness, rashes, edema, and drowsiness are all side effects of these blockers. 
  3. Diuretics, also known as water pills, are medications that increase the amount of salt and water excreted from the body through urine. These reduce the amount of fluid in the body, lowering blood pressure. Headache, increased cholesterol levels, decreased sodium levels, muscle cramping, and, in some cases, gout is all diuretics' side effects. 
  4. Beta-blockers are medications that reduce the effects of the hormone adrenaline. Constipation, difficulty breathing, weakness, and drying of the mouth, eyes, and skin are some of its side effects. 

Who Qualifies for the Treatment?

If it is discovered during the consultation that the person has chronic high blood pressure, the doctor will provide the medical advice required by the patient to control the condition. Over one billion people are affected by systemic Hypertension. Chronic Hypertension affects 25% of all women of childbearing age. [1] Pregnancy can also cause an increase in blood pressure. 69% of all patients with myocardial infarction have high blood pressure, [2] making so many people eligible for treatment of a disease that, if not treated, can lead to death. 

Anyone can develop systemic Hypertension, so no one is excluded from treatment; however, patients with high blood pressure should be evaluated for target organ damage. Cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, ventricular hypertrophy, coronary revascularization, stroke, retinopathy, peripheral arterial disease, and nephropathy should also be tested. If a person has chronic high blood pressure, all of these diseases should be diagnosed because they can be fatal. 

Additional Read: 7 Best Drinks to Lower Blood pressure

What are the Post-treatment Instructions?

Systemic Hypertension makes the patient need to adopt a healthier lifestyle. This includes exercising and moving the body to keep it active and not dormant, drinking plenty of water, eating a nutritious diet, and lowering sodium and fat levels, as these can harm a person with high blood pressure. Alcohol, drugs, and smoking are also on the no-no list. 

Aside from exercise and a healthy diet, eating potassium-rich foods is known to help with the condition. Potassium-rich foods include green, leafy vegetables, bananas, apricots, oranges, nuts, and seeds. Caffeine reduction is also highly beneficial in blood pressure control. 

Stress management is also critical because stress is a known cause of high blood pressure. People could benefit from meditation, long walks, and other relaxation techniques. To live a healthy life free of constant and chronic rises in blood pressure levels, one must strive to live a healthy lifestyle that includes being happy and relaxed. 

How Long Does Recovery Take?

Maintaining normal blood pressure levels would be a part of a person's life, not a one-time event. Systemic Hypertension does not simply go away. 

Keeping it in check is possible for anyone who desires to live a healthy and fulfilled life.

Systemic Hypertension is another term for high blood pressure, which can develop as a result of an underlying health condition or as a result of lifestyle choices. High blood pressure can also be inherited genetically. There is currently no cure for Hypertension. Instead, health professionals use words like "manage" or "control" to describe methods for keeping blood pressure in a healthy range.

Healthy lifestyle changes may be sufficient for some people to reduce high blood pressure and keep it within normal limits. As with taking hypertension medications, you must maintain those healthy lifestyle behaviors for them to have a positive effect on your blood. 

If you have more questions, get an online doctor consultation with just a click on Bajaj Finserv Health. The best thing here is that you can book a teleconsultation from the comfort of your home and get all the advice you need online. With the convenience and safety this offers, you can start taking the best care of your health!

Published on 16 Sep 2022Last updated on 27 Dec 2022

Please note that this article is solely meant for informational purposes and Bajaj Finserv Health Limited (“BFHL”) does not shoulder any responsibility of the views/advice/information expressed/given by the writer/reviewer/originator. This article should not be considered as a substitute for any medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with your trusted physician/qualified healthcare professional to evaluate your medical condition. The above article has been reviewed by a qualified doctor and BFHL is not responsible for any damages for any information or services provided by any third party.

Dr. Jay Mehta

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Jay Mehta

, MBBS 1 , MD - General Medicine 3



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